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Pinus pinea

Stone pine - Wikipedi

The stone pine, botanical name Pinus pinea, also known as the Italian stone pine, umbrella pine and parasol pine, is a tree from the pine family ().The tree is native to the Mediterranean region, occurring in Southern Europe, The Palestinian Territories, Israel, Lebanon and Syria.It is also naturalized in North Africa, the Canary Islands, South Africa and New South Wales Pinus pinea Pinus pinea in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats R. Abad Viñas, G. Caudullo, S. Oliveira, D. de Rigo The stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) is a medium-sized tree with an umbrella-shaped, large and flat crown, scattered around the Mediterranean basin, mainly in coastal areas, and particularly abundant in south Western Europe

Pinus pinea, commonly called stone pine, Italian stone pine, Roman pine, parasol pine and umbrella pine, is native to the northern Mediterranean coastal region (Southern Europe to Turkey and Lebanon). In the Mediterranean area, edible pine nuts (pignolis) from this pine have been harvested since prehistoric times Details P. pinea is an evergreen conifer making a round-topped evergreen tree with stiff, dark green needles to 15cm long. Cones rounded-ovoid, to 15cm long, shiny light brown. It will reach 15-20m when fully matur Picturesque with age, Pinus pinea (Italian Stone Pine) is an evergreen conifer adorned with a rounded, umbrella-shaped crown on a rather short, slightly sinuous trunk. The bark is thick, plated, deeply fissured, red-brown to orange in color with blackish edges to the plates Itt már látszottak rajta a hideg nyomai. pinus pinea 10 02.jpg. Aztán, miután elolvadt a hó és ki tudtam húzni a földből edényestől, úgy gondoltam, most már ki is ültethetem. Ha ezt kibírta, akkor azért, ha nem bírta ki, akkor meg már fölösleges bevinnem. Így aztán kiültettem. 2010. március Pinoli di pino cembro (dx) e di pino domestico (sin) Un metodo utile per riconoscere giovani esemplari di Pinus pinea da esemplari di Pinus pinaster che appaiono assolutamente uguali, consiste nello stropicciare una manciata di foglie aghiformi verdi

Pinus Pinea, Salerno. 375 likes · 4 talking about this · 68 were here. Location Event Le Pinus pinea, plus connu sous les noms évoquateurs de Pin parasol ou de Pin pignon, est un grand conifère au tempérament typiquement méridional, même s'il s'adapte jusqu'en région parisienne, en situation abritée Die Pinie (Pinus pinea), auch Italienische Steinkiefer, Mittelmeer-Kiefer oder Schirm-Kiefer genannt, ist eine Pflanzenart, die zur Gattung der Kiefern (Pinus) aus der Familie der Kieferngewächse (Pinaceae) gehört A stakeholder seminar with the topic Knowledge advances in the stone pine value chain, with several key-note speakers: Sven Mutke (CIFOR - INIA), Rafael Calama (CIFOR - INIA), Isabel Carrasquinho (INIAV), Luis Fontes (ISA - CEF-PINEA PROJECT ), Ana Cristina Gonçalves (U. Évora - ICAAM), has been held on 6 March at Alcacer do Sal, the most traditional Pinus pinea pine nut production region. Pinus spp. Mandulafenyő Pinus pinea magyar nevén: mandulafenyő angol nevén: stone pine német nevén: Stein-Kiefer. Származás: Óriás, sötétlő ernyőivel, rajzolatos törzsével a mediterrán táj elmaradhatatlan fenyője. Ősidők óta művelik, leromlott természetes és elvadult kultúrállományait ma már nehéz megkülönböztetni

The cones are green and round in the first 2 years. When ripe, starting in the third year, they grow to become ovoid and turn a shiny brown. The seeds, the well-known pine nuts, have been a delicacy since Roman times. Together with Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus pinea is a specific tree that occurs often in countries around the Mediterranean Sea The stone pine, botanical name Pinus pinea, also known as the Italian stone pine, umbrella pine and parasol pine, is a tree from the pine family (Pinaceae).The tree is native to the Mediterranean region, occurring in Southern Europe, Israel, Lebanon and Syria. It is also naturalized in North Africa, the Canary Islands, South Africa and New South Wales Mature Pinus pinea - Cape Town. Mature Pinus pinea - Neethlingshof, Stellenbosch. Mature Pinus pinea canopies - Kirstenbosch Botanical Garden. Pinus pinea 3000-litres. Pinus pinea 3000-litres. Mature Pinus pinea - Stellenbosch. Mature Pinus pinea - Cape Town. Mature Pinus pinea - Neethlingshof, Stellenbosch

Pinus pinea es una especie heliófila, resiste muy bien la sequía estival durante largos períodos de tiempo, los suelos con escasa humedad y temperaturas medias muy altas, aunque no soporta heladas muy extremas. Esta especie es natural de toda la cuenca mediterránea Pinus pinea L., a major tree nut species known as stone pine, is an evergreen conifer and the largest producer of commercial pine nuts. It is endemic to the Mediterranean Basin, where the seeds have been part of the Mediterranean diet for over 20 centuries

Pinus: [Pinaceae] nome latino del pino, connesso con il sanscrito pítu resinoso, citato da Plinio, Virgilio e altri pinea: attinente i pini: per l'habitat, la somiglianza perché produce frutti simili alle pigne ecc.(Pinus) il nome latino delle pigne (frutti dei pini domestici che producono pinoli commestibili) era nux pinea, sostantivato in pinea: Pinus pinea suona quindi come il pino delle. Wander through a gallery of Italian Renaissance art and eventually you'll come to a landscape defined by towering, umbrella-shaped trees known as Italian stone pines, or Pinus pinea

Pinus pinea - Plant Finde

Pinus pinea (parasolden) kopen? Bij de Olijfboomspecialist bent u aan het juiste adres voor een zeer kwalitatieve Pinus pinea (parasolden) tegen een vaste lage prijs. De Olijfboomspecialist importeert Pinus pinea uit Italie. De Olijfboomspecialist heeft een zeer grote voorraad Pinus pinea (parasolden) zodat het u aan keus niet ontbreekt Pinus pinea / Italian stone pine subgenus Pinus, section Pinus, subsection Pinaster (Mayr ex Koehne) PINUS PINEA S.r.l. Via acropoli, 79/A 00050 Fregene (ROMA) - tel +39 06.66.85.209 cell +39 335.70.64.31

Zeer karakteristieke boom met een afgeplat bolvormige kroon op een stevige rechte stam waardoor een mooie parasolvorm ontstaat. De stam is oranjebruin en krijgt later diepe groeven waardoor brede schorsplaten ontstaan. Jonge twijgen zijn groenbruin tot oranje in het eerste jaar, later dof oranjebruin Pinus pinea or the Italian Stone Pine is one of those very distinctive emblems of Italy and in particular, Rome where they line the Via Appia. Differing to other Pines, they grow their foliage in clumps, held aloft on angled branches to resemble an umbrella. They are also known for their edible nuts (Pine Nuts), thick, tall thin trunks with. Pine Nut Young Trees. Pine Nut (Pinus pinea) Tree 10 - 20cm tall. Grow your own pine nuts! Pine nut is a very hardy and easy to grow tree. It will grow into a large (up to 6m tall), attractive umbrella shaped tree and will start producing pinecones containing pine nuts after about six years

Pinje (Pinus pinea) er en furuart.Den tilhører underseksjonen Pinaster som hovedsakelig er utbredt i middelhavslandene.Pinje er den mest kjente av furuene i middelhavsområdet, selv om andre arter har en større utbredelse. Den blir som regel 12-25 meter høy, men kan bli opptil 35 meter Pinja (Pinus pinea) on mäntyjen (Pinus) sukuun kuuluva havupuu, jonka alkuperäistä esiintymisaluetta on Etelä-Eurooppa. Pinjan syötäviä siemeniä on käytetty hyödyksi jo esihistoriallisilta ajoilta. Sitä käytetään nykyisin myös koristekasvina ja voidaan kasvattaa bonsai -puuna Pinus pinea L. Pinus pinea. L. Widely known for its edible seeds, the stone pine is an unusual and distinctive-looking tree, which can grow to achieve an umbrella-like appearance. Mature trees have thick, fire-resistant bark and large cones, which open and release their seeds in response to heat. The seeds are eaten and dispersed by birds and. Pinus pinea ( mandulafenyő ) A mandulafenyő (Pinus pinea) mediterrán eredetű fenyő. Az ehető magvú és magjukért termesztett fenyők közül a legismertebb. Természetes élőhelyén kb. 20 méteres magasságot elérő fenyő faj. Dekoratív örökzöld fa, mely jellegzetes, ernyőszerűen szétterülő koronájával díszít. Jól mutat más mediterrán növények társaságában.

A Pinus pinea (Európai mandulafenyő) a mediterráneumban általánosan elterjedt, ehető magjaiért pedig már az ókorban széleskörűen ültetett fenyő, mely széles, szabályos, ernyő alakú koronájával semmivel sem összetéveszthető gyönyörű jelenség! Elterjedési területén nemcsak magjaiért, hanem jól hasznosítható. A mandulafenyő (Pinus pinea) a Földközi-tenger térségében őshonos, természetes élőhelyén kb. 20 méteres magasságot elérő fenyő faj. Dekoratív örökzöld fa, mely jellegzetes, ernyőszerűen szétterülő koronájával díszít Pinus pinea - Italian Stone Pine is a large, flat headed pine. To learn more please watch the video. For more on this and many other plants please visit www... További mediterrán, gyümölcstermő és egzotikus növények: www.egzotikusdisznovenyek.h

Pinus pinea stone pine/RHS Gardenin

  1. Karakteristike. Pinija ili pinj (Pinus pinea L.) je crnogorično stablo iz porodice borovki (Pinaceae).Stablo naraste do 25 metara visine tvoreći u gornjem dijelu snažno razgranatu krošnju oblika kišobrana. Korijen je jak, dubok i dobro razgranat, bez glavne žile. Deblo je promjera do 150 cm, kora debla je crvenosmeđa, debela i duboko izbrazdana
  2. Pinus pinea L. Décrit et nommé par Linné en 1753. Pinea du latin signifiant 'arbre produisant des cônes' ou 'arbre ressemblant au pin'. Habitat. Il cohabite avec le chêne vert et le pin d'Alep en basse altitude, sur des sols sablonneux, acides ou neutres
  3. Pinus pinea ist einhäusig, das heißt, männliche und weibliche Blüten wachsen auf einem Baum. Die männlichen Blüten leuchten gelb und stehen im Juni in Büscheln an der Basis diesjähriger Langtriebe in der unteren Krone. Die weiblichen gelbgrünen Blüten bestehen aus ein Zentimeter langen Zapfen, sie stehen unterhalb der Triebspitze von.
  4. A simafenyő (Pinus strobus), a kaliforniai selyemfenyő (Pinus lambertiana) és a mandulafenyő (Pinus pinea) fája viszonylag puha. Ezek tűi ötös (ritkán négyes) csomókban (vagy magánosan) állnak. Tobozaik nyelesek, a tobozpikkelyek hegye nem szúrós, kevés gyantát tartalmaznak

Pinus pinea are good trees for the coast -- they are aerosol and soil salt-tolerant. Although they need plenty of water when young, mature trees are drought tolerant. Consider Italian stone pines. Pinus. Espèce : Pinea. Famille : Pinacées. Mode de vie : Vivace. Origine de l'espèce : Originaire du bassin méditerranéen, ce pin pignon est un arbre typique que ces régions. Sa présence, dès l'Antiquité, dans les paysages latins lui a valu le surnom de Pin d'Italie

Habit: Pinus pinea (stone pine); Habit. Artek children's camp near the town Hurzuf, Crimean peninsula, Ukraine. September 2009. ©Mykola Swarnyk/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3. Le PINUS PINEA (Pin parasol) est un conifère majestueux caractéristique des régions méditerranéennes dont la forme rappelle celle d'un parasol bien étalé. L'écorce est brun rougeâtre, découpée en longues plaques verticales marquées de profondes craquelures sombres. Petites fleurs en Mai-Juin

Pinus pinea (Italian Stone Pine) - Gardenia

De Pinus Pinea geeft elke tuin een opwaardering: de boom straalt namelijk warmte en geborgenheid uit. Daarnaast valt de boom ook op omdat hij het hele jaar door groen is. De Parasolden is geschikt voor in elke tuin, mits hij wel jaarlijks gesnoeid wordt. Wanneer je een Parasolden besteld, wordt deze meestal binnen 5 werkdagen gratis thuisbezorgd Target species. Pinus pinea is a light-demanding, drought-adapted and thermophilous species, considered as the most iconic tree of the Mediterranean flora (Abad Viñas et al. 2016).It has a scattered distribution around the Mediterranean Basin (Caudullo et al. 2017).In Anatolia, the most extensive natural P. pinea forests occur between Aydın-Koçarlı and Muğla-Yatağan regions of western. Pinus pinea is the species of pine commemorated in the musical piece, The Pines of Rome, which is part of the Roman Trilogy composed by Ottorino Resphigi in 1924. pinea: relating to pine, apparently the classical Latin name for pine nuts. Silverton, Oregon: The Oregon Garden - Conifer Garden

Pinus pinea / Mandulafenyő - palmatartok

Pinus pinea; Pinus pinea Italian Stone Pine. Boething Treeland Farms grows over 1,000 varieties of trees, shrubs, perennials and specialty plants on 10 California nurseries to serve the wholesale landscape and nursery industries throughout the Western United States and beyond The tradition in Italy is to cut off the lower branches & apparently they make perfect fodder for a pizza oven. This one has been prepared for you so no need to worry. Additional Information : Pot Size. 110L 18-20cm girth Standard, 45L 10-12cm girth 125-150cm, 70L 14-16cm Standard. Tags: Italian trees, Pine Tree, pinea, Pinus, single trunk. Six drawings in elevation, Pinus Pinea, maritime or Mediterranean pine, domestic pine, pinus pinaster. Recommended CAD blocks. Araucaria - Australian Norfolk. DWG. Fir trees prospect 01. DWG. Fir trees prospect 02. DWG. Junipers plant and elevations Espécie Pinus pinea da família Pinaceae ordem das Pinales na Flora Digital de Portuga

Pinus pinea - Wikipedi

Pino piñonero (Pinus pinea): fotos de los que planté de

Pinus Pinea - Home Faceboo

Pinus pinea - Pin parasol, un conifère méditerranéen très

Pinie - Wikipedi

  1. Pinus pinea, known as Italian Stone Pine, is sometimes referred to as the Umbrella Pine. Its large cones produce seeds that can be roasted to become the main ingredient for pesto sauce. A round headed pine, it thrives on most free draining soils and also works on the coast, but not as the first line of defence
  2. A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus (/ ˈ p iː n uː s /) of the family Pinaceae. Pinus is the sole genus in the subfamily Pinoideae.The Plant List compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden accepts 126 species names of pines as current, together with 35 unresolved species and many more synonyms. Pine may also refer to the lumber derived from pine trees.
  3. Pinus pinea (Stone Pine) is a species of tree in the family pines. They have a self-supporting growth form. They are native to northern hemisphere. They have simple, spine-shaped leaves and dry fruit. Individuals can grow to 30 m. Reproduction is monoecious

Modelling growth and pine nuts production for Pinus pinea

  1. Ellenőrizze a (z) Pinus pinea fordításokat a (z) magyar nyelvre. Nézze meg a Pinus pinea mondatokban található fordítás példáit, hallgassa meg a kiejtést és tanulja meg a nyelvtant
  2. Pinus Pinea Full Standard trees can be used for above fence screening or as stand-alone ornamental specimens. The Pinus Pinea is a lovely conifer tree that naturally features a rounded, broad flattened umbrella-like canopy. It has a tall spreading habit with twisted, glossy green needle-like, soft leaves
  3. The examples in Pinus pinea are verifiable and correct based on the knowledge of Earth's finest taxonomists. If you can provide better pictures with expert verification, we'll be most happy to update the record. Reply Richard Pellek . 8 months ago. Thanks for the many photos of pines that are not very common..
  4. Pinje eller pinjeträd (Pinus pinea) är ett träd inom tallsläktet och familjen tallväxter som växer i större delen av Medelhavsområdet. Pinjeträdet blir över 20 [1] meter högt och förekommer på sandiga marker runt Medelhavet. Trädkronan av barrtäckta grenar är paraplyformad
  5. Pinus ye un xéneru de plantes vasculares (xeneralmente árboles y raramente parrotales), comúnmente llamaes pinos, pertenecientes al grupu de les coníferes y, dientro d'este, a la familia de les pináceas, que presenten una ramificación frecuentemente verticilada y más o menos regular.. La copa pue ser piramidal o arrondada y, nos árboles adultos, ancha y ablayada
  6. Pinus pinea. Zeer karakteristieke boom met een afgeplat bolvormige kroon op een stevige rechte stam waardoor een mooie parasolvorm ontstaat. De stam is oranjebruin en krijgt later diepe groeven waardoor brede schorsplaten ontstaan. Jonge twijgen zijn groenbruin tot oranje in het eerste jaar, later dof oranjebruin
  7. Media in category Pinus pinea The following 37 files are in this category, out of 37 total. Beach of Bolonia - 013 - dune.jpg. Doñanas 01.jpg. Dunas móviles II.JPG. Dunas móviles.JPG. Enebrales vistos desde barlovento.jpg. Espacio Natural de Doñana 105.jpg. Espacio Natural de Doñana 107.jpg. Paisaje en el Parque de Doñana,.

Especies de árboles. A mandulafenyő (Pinus pinea) bemutatása - 2. részA fenyőfélék széles nemzetsége több mint 100 fajt foglal magába, és a toboztermők törzsének egyharmadát teszik ki, földrajzilag pedig az északi féltekén honosak, Borneotól és Mexikótól, 3,86 km tengerszint feletti magasságig egészen az Északi Sarkkörig terjeszkednek Mandulafenyő (Pinus pinea) és érdekessége Kertportal Hozzászólás a(z) Mandulafenyő (Pinus pinea) és érdekessége bejegyzéshez A mandulafenyő (Pinus pinea) rokona az Európában hegyvidékeken gyakori Erdei fenyő (Pinus silvestris), ez hazánkban is őshonos

Mandulafenyő - Pinus pinea kb. 140 cm törzsmagassággal Ernyőszerűen szétterülő, 20 méter magasra megnövő örökzöld.Kérge narancsbarna, mélyen barázdált. Fiatal hajtásai szürkészöldek és simák, idősebb korukban világosbarnák. 10-15 cm hosszú, vaskos, kemény és kissé csavarodott, erősen kihegyezett tűleveleinek. Európai mandulafenyő (Pinus pinea) A Mediterráneumból származó mandulafenyő kis vagy közepes termetű fa, amely idősebb korára vízszintesen álló, sűrű ágaival sajátságosan ellaposodó, ernyőszerű koronát fejleszt, egyedülálló látványt nyújt a kertekben, parkokban Stone Pine (pinus pinea) The seeds of the Stone Pine have a very short natural dormancy and can be sown without any form of pre-treatment. The seeds are large and produce a strong taproot and therefore need to be sown into containers at least 10 cm deep. Cover the seeds with 8-10 mm of compost and water well Holiday house Pinus Pinea is set in Viganj and offers a garden, barbecue facilities and a terrace. The air-conditioned accommodation is 2.1 km from Beach Zamošće, and guests benefit from complimentary WiFi and private parking available on site La pianta di Pinus pinea (Pino domestico - Pino da pinoli) è un albero sempreverde molto diffuso in Italia, specialmente in Liguria e Toscana. Forma conica, poi a cupola, con rami a raggiera, corteccia a placche arancione-marrone. Sviluppa aghi giovanili solitari, blu glauco, che persistono per alcuni anni, aghi adulti verde lucido, contorti, lunghi 12-15 [

Las características de adaptación de los árboles de pino

Étkezési fenyőmagok - Terebess gyümölcskalau

  1. De Pinus Pinea behoort tot de orde van Coniferen (Coniferales) en daarbinnen tot de familie Pinaceae (Dennen). Het geslacht is Pinus (Den) waaronder vele dennensoorten vallen zoals de grove den. De Den moet dus niet worden verward met het geslacht Picea (Spar) die ook tot de dennenfamilie behoort
  2. Le pin parasol (Pinus pinea) pin pignon ou pin pinier est un conifère tout à fait reconnaissable à son port qui ressemble à un parasol ouvert, comme s'il était fait pour faire de l'ombre. Toutefois, lorsqu'il est jeune, il est conique, et ne devient tabulaire, avec des branches robustes, qu'avec les années
  3. Pinus Species: pinea Family: Pinaceae Uses (Ethnobotany): The resin of this pine is used for varnishes, furniture wax and as an antiseptic and for kidney and bladder problems. A green dye can be made from the needles. The pine nuts are edible. Life Cycle: Woody Recommended Propagation Strategy: Grafting Seed Country Or Region Of Origin: Europe.
  4. őségű, prémium, jogdíjmentes stock fotók, képek és fényképek milliói
  5. Pinus pinea Umbrella Pine / Stone Pine Request a Quote « Back to Products. Common Name Umbrella Pine / Stone Pine Medium. A very distinct tree developing a characteristic dense, flat-topped or umbrella-shaped head. A picturesque pine particularly suitable for sandy soils and maritime areas. The seeds which are pine nuts, have been a.
  6. Pinus pinea L. / écorce / anatomie / composition chimique 1. Introduction in the Iberian peninsula and in France. P. pinea is a species of ecological importance in these regions and Pinus pinea L. (stone pine) is a pine species of eco- its protective role for other species, e.g. cork-oak and nomic importance, growing in southern Europe espe.

Pinus pinea Umbrella pine, Stone pine - Van den Berk

  1. g yellow-brown. Leaves in 2s, mostly 10-15cm long can be short as 8cm, stout.
  2. Pinus pinea L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1000 (1753). BHL POWO . Contact us about this record. IPNI Life Sciences Identifier (LSID) urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:263221-1 Publication Species Plantarum Collation 2: 1000 Date of Publication 1 May 1753 Family as entered in IPNI Pinaceae Original Data Remark
  3. Pinus pinea on Galvez Street outside Burnham Pavilion. Sairus Patel, 29 Dec 2018. A n attractive tree of very characteristic round-topped shape without an apical leader which, one might say, looks like a stone.* More likely, the very hard-shelled nut accounts for the English name.
  4. dkettőnknek jobb így már
  5. Italian Stone Pine (Pinus pinea) Elephant's Food (Portulacaria afra) Italian Stone Pine (Pinus pinea) - aka - Umbrella/Parasol/ pine. Native to the Mediterranean Basin, this evergreen species is primarily distributed along the central-western coast and in Sardinia, occurring in Southern Europe, North Africa, and the Levant
  6. Pinus pinea Name Synonyms Apinus pinea (L.) Neck. Apinus pinea (L.) Neck. ex Rydb. Pinea esculenta Opiz Pinus africana K.Koch Pinus aracanensis Knight Pinus aracanensis Knight ex Gordon & Glend. Pinus arctica Carrière Pinus esculenta Opiz Pinus fastuosa Salisb. Pinus fragilis Carrière Pinus maderensis Ten
Pine Nut Macdougal Tree - Pinus pineaPine Nut Tree - Pinus pineaPinus resinosa (Red Pine): Minnesota WildflowersPinus strobus (White Pine): Minnesota Wildflowers

Pinus pinea heeft zijn Nederlandse naam, parasolden, te danken aan de bijzondere paraplu- of parasolvormige kroon met grote, uitgespreide takken die bevestigd zijn aan een korte stam.. Hoe ziet Pinus pinea eruit?. Deze den is een conifeer die oorspronkelijk uit het westelijk Middellandse-Zeegebied komt en goed bestand is tegen de wind De Pinus pinea heeft een parasolvormige kroon met uitgespreide takken die bevestigd zijn aan de stam. De kleur van de boomschors is roodbruin tot oranje. De naalden van de Pinus pinea zijn donkergroen, hebben scherpe punten die in paren staan en 12-20 cm lang worden. Kortom: een mooie den die overal toepasbaar is Pinus nombre clásico latino del pino; pinea es el nombre latino de la piña y quiere destacar la producción por esta especie de piñones comestibles. DESCRIPCIÓN. Árbol perennifolio de hasta 30m de altura, los adultos presentan la copa en forma de sombrilla, crecimiento lento Pinus pinea. Stone/Umbrella Pine . Commercially valuable edible seeds (Pine Nuts). Small, flat-crowned tree, with attractive fissured red-grey bark. Tolerates hot, dry conditions. Requires well-drained soils. Self fertile. Evergreen. Hardy. Also available in a truffle-infected option. 12m. 8m USDA Plants Databas